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ALEXANDER  Y03ST  HUMBOI.BT.                   99
In 1844, when this gigantic work was still Incom-
plete, the cost of a copy of the folio edition was 2700
dollars, about 405J.    This is twice the cost of  the
celebrated  French national work,   " Description do
TEgypte/*   towards   the  preparation   of which   the
government of that country advanced about one-eighth,
of a million of pounds sterling.    A simple calculation
will show how great must have been the expense of
the whole work, when a single copy cost 2700 dollars
(tach dollar is worth 3s.); but it will become more
evident when we state that the printing, paper, and
copper-plates  alone,  have cost more  than   226,000
dollars.    And yet this important literary undertaking
was not only realized and supported by the assistance
of the  purchasing public  in  all civilized states in
Europe, but also by large voluntary pecuniary sacrifices'
on the part of Humboldt.
From 1808, Alexander von Humboldt lived princi-
pally in Paris.    Towards the end of this year, Wil-
liam had been obliged to quit Home,  and his new
political position in the Prussiai). state did not induce
his return thither.    He had been appointed councillor
of state in the ministry of Home Affairs, and chief of
the Section of Religion, and of Public Instruction;
and in this very appropriate post he, by his represen-
tations, induced the king to decree the institution of
an University in Berlin, in 1809.   "William, von Hum-
boldt was the soul of this undertaking, although the Lord
Chancellor Beyme, the finance minister Von Altenstein,
and the professors Wolff,  Schleiermacher, Reil, and
others, assisted him in its erection by word and deed.
He indticed the most eminent men to accept posts in
the new institution; Grafe of Ballenstadt, as surgeon;
Reil,   from  Halle,  as physiologist;   Rudolphs, from
Greifswalde, as comparative anatomist;  Illiger, from
Brunswick, as entomologist;  Gauss, from Gottingen,
as mathematician; Savigny, from Landshut, as lawyer;
Fichte, from Erlangen, as philosopher; Niebuhr, from
Halle, as teacher of political economy;   Bockh,  De
Frette, and Marheinecke, from Heidelberg; and Alt*
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